Category Archives: Infections

Viral Phenotype and Immune Response in Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. Part 3

Virologic analysis. In patients 1-7 seroconversion occurred 11-27 days after the onset ofsymptoms. In patient 8, despite early treatment with zidovudine, seroconversion occurred 41 days after exposure to HIV-I-infected blood. Transient HIV-l antigenemia before seroconversion was detected in seven of eight patients. In patients 1-5 only NSI isolates were recovered. In patients 6 and 8 […]

Viral Phenotype and Immune Response in Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. Part 2

The source of infection was unknown for 16 subjects. The virus donor could be identified for the accidentally infected subject 8, for subject 2, a monogamous heterosexual individual with a confirmed seropositive Zairean partner as single-risk factor, and for 1 of the 11 cohort participants, subject 17, a monogamous homosexual man. For subject 17, the […]

Viral Phenotype and Immune Response in Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection

Nineteen individuals were studied for virologic and immunologic events during primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l) infection. In 16 individuals only non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) isolates were detected; syncytium-inducing (SI) isolates were obtained from 3. Studies of transmitter-recipient pairs indicated that both NSI variants and SI variants were transmitted and that SI variants may be suppressed […]

HIV Infection and Aging. Results

Results. Both groups were comparable in regard to age (mean, 41 years for HIV-negative subjects and 39 years for HIV-positive subjects), sex (male sex, 14 [56%] of 25 HIVnegative subjects and 20 [77%] of 26 HIV-positive subjects), and education level (mean, 15 years for HIV-negative subjects and 16 years for HIV-positive subjects). HIV-positive subjects had […]

HIV Infection and Aging

Imaging was performed on a 3 Tesla (3T) whole-body system (3T and Excite; General Electric) using an 8-channel receive head coil. High-resolution structural images for anatomical confirmation were acquired using an inversion recovery prepared 3-dimensional fast spoiled pulse sequence (inversion time [TI], 450 ms; repetition time [TR], 7.9 ms; echo time [TE], 3.1 ms; flip […]

HIV Infection and Aging

We investigated the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and aging and their effects on brain function demands by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A multiple-regression model was used to study the association and interaction between fMRI measures, HIV serostatus, and age for 26 HIV-infected subjects and 25 seronegative subjects. Although HIV […]

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and HIV-1

This issue of the Journal continues the dialogue on the interaction between HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Two articles in this issue, one by Kapiga et al., describing a cohort of women in Tanzania, and the other by Cachay et al., describing a cohort of largely men who have sex with men […]

The Necessity and Quandaries of Dengue Vaccine Development

Dengue is an emerging and reemerging arboviral disease of great global public health importance. Increased transmission and disease outbreaks are being driven by population growth, urbanization, international travel, and unchecked vector populations. Southeast Asia, Central and South America, and parts of the Caribbean experience endemic and hyperendemic dengue virus (DENV) transmission while indigenous transmission is […]

Antibody approaches

C. difficile toxins may be the ultimate protection strategy against CDI. Both passive immunity with monoclonal antibodies and active vaccines are currently undergoing clinical trials involving humans. The use of 2 intravenously administered monoclonal antibodies directed against toxins A and B when added to standard CDI treatment with vancomycin or metronidazole in a phase 2 […]

Non‐antimicrobial “Outside the Box” CDI Management. Part 2

More recently, whey protein in immunized cow’s milk, which contains high levels of secretory IgA, has been used clinically for CDI recurrence prevention and CDI primary treatment. Results remain inconclusive, because the CDI recurrence prevention trial (2 weeks of daily anti- C. difficile whey protein after standard CDI therapy) resulted in a recurrence rate of […]