Category Archives: Other

The Myth of Penis Size and Female Anatomy

One reason to get your facts straight about male sexual anatomy and physiology is that this has been so dominated by superstition and misinformation. Men stubbornly perpetuate penis myths because they are afraid to challenge self-defeating sexual folklore of what it means to be a “real man.” A destructive myth that continues to exert a […]

Neutralization activity. Part 2

DNA vaccine has been demonstrated as a promising vaccination strategy for various viral infections. Previous studies have shown good immunogenicity and protection efficacy of hantavirus DNA vaccine. Hooper et al. demonstrated that DNA vaccination with a plasmid containing a cDNA representing the Seoul virus (SEOV) M segment elicited neutralizing antibody responses in mice and hamsters. […]

Neutralization activity

Neutralizing antibodies, which conferring protective immunity induced by DNA vaccine plasmids against hantavirus were evaluated by microneutralization assays. Pre-immune sera from all the groups exhibited no neutralizing activity. In contrast, immune sera collected 21 days after the first immunization with 100 μg of HTNV DNA vaccine plasmids in the presence or absence of CpG motifs […]

Expression and identification of eCTLA4-N/GP fusion proteins

The expressing of eCTLA4-N fusion protein was firstly determined in prokaryotic system. Supernatant and cell lysates of E.coli DH5α transformed with pET30a/eCTLA-S or pET30a/S plasmid were analyzed by SDS-PAGE (Figure 1A). Neither eCTLA4-N fusion protein nor HTNV N was expressed into supernatant (Figure 1A, lane 1 and lane 3). Instead, eCTLA4-N fusion protein was shown […]

Generation of double-stranded DNA using long oligos and Taq polymerase

20 pmol of each paired oligo was incubated with 2 U of Taq DNA polymerase (Promega, Madison, USA), 1X reaction buffer, 2.5 mM MgCl2, and 0.4 mM of dNTPs. The reaction mix was incubated at 94°C for 30 seconds followed by 55°C for 30 seconds and 72°C for 30 seconds for 5 cycles. After the […]

Generation of ds DNA template from synthetic oligos. Part 2

The use of fully synthetic oligonucleotides as positive control material has been described recently. However, there were limitations as to the length of the oligonucleotide, which was generally unable to reach more than 130 bases. In many situations, for instance in the case of drug resistance mutations, nucleotide substitutions are often scattered within the target […]

Synthetic long oligonucleotides. Part 2

Significant advances in molecular biology and human genomic research has paved the way for a host of new genetic diagnostic tests, including gene sequencing, detection, identification and genotyping of organisms using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or other amplification techniques such as multiplex PCR, reverse line blot hybridization (RLB), Ligase chain reaction (LCR), Rolling […]

Synthetic long oligonucleotides

Background Positive controls are an integral component of any sensitive molecular diagnostic tool, but this can be affected, if several mutations are being screened in a scenario of a pandemic or newly emerging disease where it can be difficult to acquire all the necessary positive controls from the host. This work describes the development of […]

Non-structural protein 1 of avian influenza A viruses differentially inhibit NF-kappaB promoter activation

Background Influenza virus infection activates NF-κB and is a general prerequisite for a productive influenza virus infection. On the other hand, non-structural protein 1 (NS1) suppresses this viral activated NF-κB, presumably to prevent expression of NF-κB mediated anti-viral response. NS1 proteins of influenza A viruses are divided into two groups, known as allele A and […]

Adsorption and receptor recognition

A second caveat which seriously affects the quality of the data is that the entity to be studied not be distorted by the ability of proteins to be manipulated and expressed in some form in E. coli. There are currently crystal structures of an E1-E2 fusion protein (PDB codes 3MUU), chikungunya glycoproteins (PDB codes: 3N40;3N41;3N42;3N43;3N44;2XFB;2XFC) […]