The results of the cost assessment paralleled the findings seen with LOS

As was seen with the probability for both death and MV support, the LOS climbed as the BAP-65 class increased. Figure 3 displays the average LOS and 95% CIs by the BAP-65 class (F = 443.1; P < .001) and P values for follow-up Welch t tests of differences in LOS from one class to the next.

The results of the cost assessment paralleled the findings seen with LOS. For example, although the median costs were $5,357 (IQR, $3,479-$8,635) per admission, overall costs varied based on severity of illness buy Viagra online Australia and correlated closely with the BAP-65. For those in the lowest risk BAP-65 stratum (eg, no risk factors and age < 65 years), median costs came to $4,307 (IQR, $2,879-$6,660), whereas costs nearly tripled for patients in BAP-65 highest risk cohort (median costs, $11,473; IQR, $5,988-$20,754). Figure 4 depicts average cost and 95% CIs by the BAP-65 class (F  = 1,049.6; P < .001) and P values for follow-up Welch t tests of differences in cost from one class to the next.

The sensitivity analysis on LOS and cost restricted only to hospital survivors did not alter our observations regarding the relationship between resource use and the BAP-65 class. For example, the median LOS for all patients and for only hospital survivors both was 4 days. Among survivors, a longer LOS was associated with higher BAP-65 class and median LOS increases from 3 days (IQR, 2-5 days) in class I to 7 days in class V (IQR, 4-12 days). Costs showed similar relationship in the survivors. The median cost was $4,297 (IQR, $2,872-$6,607) vs $12,191(IQR, $6,929-$20,767) for patients in class I vs class V, respectively. The analysis on the primary end points by BAP-65 class in patients with the principal diagnosis of AECOPD yielded similar results (e-Appendix 1).

Discussion with “HQ Pharmacy”

This analysis of a large cohort of patients with AECOPDs demonstrates that the BAP-65 class correlates well with multiple clinical outcomes ranging from in-hospital mortality and need for MV to LOS and cost. Furthermore, the BAP-65 system identifies subjects unlikely to ever need MV.