Monthly Archives: October 2010

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Increased Risk of Pandemic A/H1N1‐Related Illness. Part 4

On‐reserve household participants.Two hundred twenty‐four individuals who participated in the community survey were reported as living on a surrounding reserve. After excluding individuals with unknown 2008–2009 TIV status (n=29), unknown chronic condition (n=1), or age 6 months on 31 December 2008 (n=4), the on‐reserve analysis included 191 survey participants, of whom 100 (52%) were aged

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Increased Risk of Pandemic A/H1N1‐Related Illness. Part 3

Of the 45 participants from the affected elementary school households, 14 (31%) were seropositive for pH1N1 (13 of 14 persons with ILI). Of the 29 on‐reserve participants, 13 (45%) were seropositive for pH1N1 (12 of 13 persons with ILI). Of the 48 serum samples from participants belonging to off‐reserve households without children in the affected […]

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Increased Risk of Pandemic A/H1N1‐Related Illness. Part 2

The primary focus of analyses presented here is estimation of the effect of receipt of the 2008–2009 TIV on risk of developing ILI during a documented pH1N1 outbreak. Symptom experience since 1 April 2009 was elicited. ILI was defined at the analysis stage as a report of fever and cough plus 1 of the following […]

Seasonal Influenza Vaccine and Increased Risk of Pandemic A/H1N1‐Related Illness

During the last week of April 2009, a laboratory‐confirmed outbreak of pandemic A/H1N1(pH1N1) influenza was reported in an elementary school in a rural community of northern British Columbia, Canada. This school included students of Aboriginal and non‐Aboriginal background drawn from the local town (population, 2000 persons) and surrounding 5 reserves (population, 1000 persons). Laboratory confirmation […]

Viral and Immunologic Factors in Patients With Viral Relapse

The relationship between viral and immunologic factors in patients with viral relapse on antiretroviral therapy is complex and incompletely understood. In this study, we compared patients who maintained virus suppression with patients experiencing viral relapse yet maintaining stable CD4+ lymphocytes while receiving antiretroviral therapy. We found that patients with viral relapse had significantly increased CD8+ […]


Immunophenotyping. Four‐color flow cytometric measurements were made, using fresh EDTA‐anticoagulated whole blood within 6 h of draw. Cells were treated with FACS lysing solution (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems), were washed with PBS, were fixed in PBS–1% formaldehyde, and were acquired immediately on a FACSCalibur cytometer. CaliBRITE3, CaliBRITE APC, and QuantiBRITE (Becton Dickinson Immunocytometry Systems), which […]

Immunologic Profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients

Combination antiretroviral therapies potently suppress plasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA levels, although many patients who initially achieve suppression below the limits of detection experience viral relapse to detectable levels. Despite virologic relapse, many HIV‐infected patients continue to benefit clinically and can maintain CD4+ lymphocyte counts above pretreatment baseline values for prolonged periods. Our current […]

Viral Commensalism in Humans. HTLV‐1

The interactions of HTLV‐1 and humans are complex. Only 0.1%–3% of HTLV‐1 infections result in T cell leukemia. Most often infection is chronic and indolent with little viral replication, exceeded by larger amounts of latent, integrated provirus. HTLV‐1 infection also is associated with some degree of immunosuppression, possibly because of its propensity to establish a […]

Viral Commensalism in Humans

In this issue of the Journal, Matsumoto et al. asked whether human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV‐1) antibody status is associated with the risk of developing gastric cancer. In a cohort of >5000 patients aged >40 years who were enrolled during 1989–1992 in an HTLV‐1–endemic area, they identified 1812 subjects who underwent endoscopy of […]

Hematologic Values in HIV‐Uninfected Children. Part 4

In vitro studies have demonstrated that ARV drugs can suppress the erythroid and myeloid cell lineages in bone marrow. Cells cultured in the presence of zidovudine show a concentration‐dependent inhibition of CD34+ progenitor proliferation in both myeloid and erythroid lineages, a decrease in mtDNA, and an increase in lactic acid. In vitro studies of primary […]