Monthly Archives: February 2011

Role of Superantigens in Human Disease

Superantigens include bacterial products (mainly ofstreptococci and staphylococci) that stimulate T cells to proliferate nonspecifically through interaction with class II major histocompatibility complex products on antigen-presenting cells and then with variable regions on the fJ chain of the T cell receptor complex. They include pyrogenic toxins (streptococcal scarlet fever toxins of serotypes A, B, and […]

HIV Infection and Aging. Results

Results. Both groups were comparable in regard to age (mean, 41 years for HIV-negative subjects and 39 years for HIV-positive subjects), sex (male sex, 14 [56%] of 25 HIVnegative subjects and 20 [77%] of 26 HIV-positive subjects), and education level (mean, 15 years for HIV-negative subjects and 16 years for HIV-positive subjects). HIV-positive subjects had […]

HIV Infection and Aging

Imaging was performed on a 3 Tesla (3T) whole-body system (3T and Excite; General Electric) using an 8-channel receive head coil. High-resolution structural images for anatomical confirmation were acquired using an inversion recovery prepared 3-dimensional fast spoiled pulse sequence (inversion time [TI], 450 ms; repetition time [TR], 7.9 ms; echo time [TE], 3.1 ms; flip […]

HIV Infection and Aging

We investigated the interactions between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and aging and their effects on brain function demands by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A multiple-regression model was used to study the association and interaction between fMRI measures, HIV serostatus, and age for 26 HIV-infected subjects and 25 seronegative subjects. Although HIV […]

Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus in Injecting Drug Users

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remain major public health problems among injecting drug users (IDUs). In 2007, it was estimated that there were 15.9 million IDUs worldwide, with 3 million living with HIV. While similar data are not available for HCV, given an HCV prevalence of 65%, it is estimated […]

Tale of Two Epidemics. Part 5

It is increasingly recognized that programs to prevent MTCT must also consider the health of the mother. Antiretroviral prophylaxis regimens, although they prevent MTCT, do not stop progression of HIV infection in the mother. Studies in Africa have shown a 3–4-fold increase in the risk of death in children, regardless of their HIV infection status, […]

Tale of Two Epidemics. Part 4

A remaining significant challenge in resource-limited countries is transmission of HIV through breast-feeding. Infected women in such settings have a significant dilemma: breast-feeding, although it provides substantial health and survival benefits to the infant and contraceptive, economic, and social benefits to the mother, is associated with risk of HIV transmission to the infant. Avoidance of […]

Tale of Two Epidemics. Part 3

The availability and acceptance of voluntary and confidential HIV counseling and testing services are critical in enabling pregnant women to determine their HIV infection status and to be able to access preventive interventions, and additional resources will be required in many settings to introduce such programs. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and nongovernmental […]

Tale of Two Epidemics. Part 2

Unfortunately, the complexity and cost of the PACTG 076 zidovudine regimen has restricted its applicability to resource-rich countries. The World Health Organization estimated that 3.2 million children were living with HIV infection at the end of 2002, the vast majority infected through MTCT. More than 90% of these perinatal infections occurred in resource-limited countries. The […]

Tale of Two Epidemics

The results of the South African Intrapartum Nevirapine Trial (SAINT), published in this issue of The Journal of Infectious Diseases provide further evidence of the safety and efficacy of short-course antiretroviral prophylaxis regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). SAINT compared 2 intrapartum/postpartum antiretroviral regimens, multiple-dose zidovudine/lamivudine and single-dose […]